Spinal decompression – Wikipedia

Spinal decompression is a surgical procedure that reduces pressure on the spinal cord.

Spinal decompression is a surgical procedure intended to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or on one or more compressed nerve roots passing through or exiting the spinal column.[1] Decompression of the spinal neural elements is a key component in treating spinal radiculopathy, myelopathy and claudication.

Decompression of nerve roots[edit]

When a single spinal nerve root is compressed, the resulting clinical outcome is termed radiculopathy, and is usually labeled according to the specific nerve root compressed (hence compression of the nerve root exiting the spinal column below the left-sided pedicle of the L5 vertebra will be diagnosed as “left L5 radiculopathy”).

Microdiscectomy (or microdecompression) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which a portion of a herniated nucleus pulposus is removed by way of a surgical instrument.[2] The purpose of this procedure

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Inclusive fitness – Wikipedia

Measure of evolutionary success based on the number of offspring the individual supports

In evolutionary biology, inclusive fitness is one of two metrics of evolutionary success as defined by W. D. Hamilton in 1964:

  • Personal fitness is the number of offspring that an individual begets (regardless of who rescues/rears/supports them)
  • Inclusive fitness is the number of offspring equivalents that an individual rears, rescues or otherwise supports through its behaviour (regardless of who begets them)

An individual’s own child, who carries one half of the individual’s genes, is defined as one offspring equivalent. A sibling’s child, who will carry one-quarter of the individual’s genes, is 1/2 offspring equivalent. Similarly, a cousin’s child, who has 1/16 of the individual’s genes, is 1/8 offspring equivalent.

From the gene’s point of view, evolutionary success ultimately depends on leaving behind the maximum number of copies of itself in the population. Prior to Hamilton’s work, it

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Tooth enamel – Wikipedia

Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish. It makes up the normally visible part of the tooth, covering the crown. The other major tissues are dentin, cementum, and dental pulp. It is a very hard, white to off-white, highly mineralised substance that acts as a barrier to protect the tooth but can become susceptible to degradation, especially by acids from food and drink. Calcium hardens the tooth enamel. In rare circumstances enamel fails to form, leaving the underlying dentin exposed on the surface.[1]

Parts of a tooth, including the enamel (cross section).

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and contains the highest percentage of minerals (at 96%),[2] with water and organic material composing the rest.[3] The primary mineral is hydroxyapatite, which is a crystalline calcium phosphate.

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Dental fear – Wikipedia

Research suggests that there is a complex set of factors that lead to the development and maintenance of significant dental anxiety or dental phobia, which can be grouped as genetic, behavioural and cognitive factors.[6] In comparison to other phobias, literature on odontophobia is relatively limited. There are several theories been proposed, however a 2014 review describes 5 pathways which relate specifically to development dental fear and anxiety: Cognitive Conditioning, Vicarious, Verbal Threat, Informative, and Parental. It is important to note, however, that there may be a variety of background factors common to all general fear and anxiety conditions that may be at play and affect these more specific pathways.[6]


Conditioning is defined as the process by which a person learns through personal experience that an event or stimulus will result in a detrimental outcome, e.g. “if I visit the dentist, it is going to be sore”. As,

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California Fitness – Wikipedia

The first California Fitness club was established in 1996 in the business district of Hong Kong near Lan Kwai Fong. There were 16 clubs in Hong Kong, Singapore and China. California Fitness was acquired in 1999 by 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide, which sold it to the Ansa Group in 2012.[1]

California Fitness was the trading name of JV Fitness;[2] it was the second largest gym operator in Hong Kong with nine locations.[3]

Beijing (The Place), Shanghai (Infiniti Plaza), Guangzhou (Seasons Mall)
Central, Causeway Bay, Wan Chai, Tsim Sha Tsui, Mongkok, Whampoa , Tuen Mun, Quarry Bay, Megabox, Leap by California Fitness: One Kowloon
Bugis, Novena Square, Orchard, Raffles

Beginning in 2005, California Fitness partnered with two fitness superstars, Jackie Chan[5] and Yao Ming,[6] to create signature clubs in the region. There were two California Fitness-Yao Ming Sport clubs in Mainland China which were re-branded as

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Fitness (magazine) – Wikipedia

Looking fit is a charming thing in this world, everybody in this universe are trying get fit and energetic.

Fitness is a United States-based women’s magazine, focusing on health, exercise, and nutrition. It is owned and published by the Meredith Corporation. The editor-in-chief of Fitness is Betty Wong.[2]


Fitness was launched in 1992,[3] and was acquired by the Meredith Corporation from Bertelsmann’s Gruner + Jahr in 2005.[4] In 2005, Fitness also launched its web presence, giving readers separate online resources for fitness and health tips alongside the magazine’s monthly editorial content.[5] Betty Wong became Editor-in-Chief in September 2008, incorporating several changes to the magazine, creating several new columns and features.[2][6] In 2009, Fitness posted significant ad page gains according to the Publishers Information Bureau, increasing by 18.4% when overall magazine publishers’ counts were down 27.9% industry-wide.[2][7] It

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Exercise (mathematics) – Wikipedia

A mathematical exercise is a routine application of algebra or other mathematics to a stated challenge. Mathematics teachers assign mathematical exercises to develop the skills of their students. Early exercises deal with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of integers. Extensive courses of exercises in school extend such arithmetic to rational numbers. Various approaches to geometry have based exercises on relations of angles, segments, and triangles. The topic of trigonometry gains many of its exercises from the trigonometric identities. In college mathematics exercises often depend on functions of a real variable or application of theorems. The standard exercises of calculus involve finding derivatives and integrals of specified functions.

Usually instructors prepare students with worked examples: the exercise is stated, then a model answer is provided. Often several worked examples are demonstrated before students are prepared to attempt exercises on their own. Some texts, such as those in Schaum’s Outlines, focus

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Aerobic exercise – Wikipedia

Aerobic exercise (also known as endurance activities,[1] cardio or cardio-respiratory exercise) is physical exercise[2] of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.[3] “Aerobic” is defined as “relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen”,[4] and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism.[5] Aerobic exercise is performed by repeating sequences of light-to-moderate intensity activities for extended periods of time.[3] Aerobic exercise may be better referred to as “solely aerobic”, as it is designed to be low-intensity enough that all carbohydrates are aerobically turned into energy via mitochondrial ATP production. Mitochondria are organelles that rely on oxygen for the metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats.

Cardio and muscle endurance exercise session using plastic steps or platforms

Examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium- to long-distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling, stair

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Exercise (options) – Wikipedia

The owner of an option contract has the right to exercise it, and thus require that the financial transaction specified by the contract is to be carried out immediately between the two parties, whereupon the option contract is terminated. When exercising a call option, the owner of the option purchases the underlying shares (or commodities, fixed interest securities, etc.) at the strike price from the option seller, while for a put option, the owner of the option sells the underlying to the option seller, again at the strike price.[1]

The option style, as specified in the contract, determines when, how, and under what circumstances, the option holder may exercise it. It is at the discretion of the owner whether (and in some circumstances when) to exercise it.

  • European – European-style option contracts may only be exercised at the option’s expiration date. Thus they can never be worth more than
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Fitness – Wikipedia

Starea fizică este, în general, realizată prin exerciții fizice. În poză este Rich Froning Jr. – câștigător de patru ori al titlului “Fittest Man on Earth”.

Condiția fizică este starea de sănătate și bunăstarea și, mai specific, capacitatea de a efectua aspecte ale sportului, ocupațiilor și activităților zilnice. Condiția fizică este, în general, realizată printr-o nutriție adecvată,[1] exercițiu fizic moderat și viguros[2] și odihnă suficientă.[3]

Înainte de revoluția industrială, fitness-ul a fost definit ca aptitudinea de a desfășura activitățile zilei fără oboseală excesivă. Cu toate acestea, prin automatizarea și schimbările în stilul de viață, aptitudinea fizică este acum considerată o măsură a capacității organismului de a funcționa eficient inclusiv în activitățile de muncă și de agrement, de a fi sănătos, de a rezista bolilor hipokinetice și de a face față situațiilor de urgență.[4]

Fitness-ul este definit[5] ca fiind calitatea sau starea de a

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