# Wikipedia

FITNESS

#### Fitness (biology) – Wikipedia

Expected reproductive success

Fitness (often denoted

${displaystyle w}$

or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology. It can be defined either with respect to a genotype or to a phenotype in a given environment. In either case, it describes individual reproductive success and is equal to the average contribution to the gene pool of the next generation that is made by individuals of the specified genotype or phenotype. The fitness of a genotype is manifested through its phenotype, which is also affected by the developmental environment. The fitness of a given phenotype can also be different in different selective environments.

With asexual reproduction, it is sufficient to assign fitnesses to genotypes. With sexual reproduction, genotypes have the opportunity to have a new frequency in the next generation. In this case, fitness values can be assigned to alleles by averaging

FITNESS

#### Physical fitness – Wikipedia

State of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition,[1] moderate-vigorous physical exercise,[2] and sufficient rest.[3]

Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.[4]

## Overview

Fitness is defined as the quality or state of being fit and healthy.[5] Around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World

DENTAL

#### Dentistry – Wikipedia

Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.[1] Although primarily associated with teeth among the general public, the field of dentistry or dental medicine is not limited to teeth but includes other aspects of the craniofacial complex including the temporomandibular joint and other supporting, muscular, lymphatic, nervous, vascular, and anatomical structures.

Occupation A dentist treats a patient with the help of a dental assistant. Profession Health care, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Medicine, Pharmacology, Cosmesis, Surgery Sub-Millimeter Surgical Dexterity Knowledge of human health, disease, pathology, and anatomy Communication/Interpersonal Skills Analytical Skills Critical Thinking
THERAPY

#### Therapy – Wikipedia

Attempted medical remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis

A therapy or medical treatment (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a medical diagnosis.

As a rule, each therapy has indications and contraindications. There are many different types of therapy. Not all therapies are effective. Many therapies can produce unwanted adverse effects.

Treatment and therapy are generally considered synonyms. However, in the context of mental health, the term therapy may refer specifically to psychotherapy.

## Semantic field

The words care, therapy, treatment, and intervention overlap in a semantic field, and thus they can be synonymous depending on context. Moving rightward through that order, the connotative level of holism decreases and the level of specificity (to concrete instances) increases. Thus, in health care contexts (where its senses are always noncount), the

DENTAL

#### Dental insurance – Wikipedia

Dental insurance, sometimes called a dental plan, is a form of health insurance designed to pay a portion of the costs associated with dental care. There are several different types of individual, family, or group dental insurance plans grouped into three primary categories: Indemnity, Preferred Provider Network (PPO), and Dental Health Managed Organizations (DHMO).

Generally dental offices have a fee schedule, or a list of prices for the dental services or procedures they offer. Dental insurance companies have similar fee schedules which is generally based on Usual and Customary dental services, an average of fees in an area. The fee schedule is commonly used as the transactional instrument between the insurance company, dental office and/or dentist, and the consumer.

## Types of coverage

### Indemnity Dental Insurance Plan

With indemnity dental plans, the insurance company generally pays the dentist a percentage of the cost

EXERCISE

#### Kegel exercise – Wikipedia

Pelvic floor exercise

Kegel exercise

Kegel exercises diagram

Pronunciation Kegel
Other names Pelvic floor exercise, pelvic muscle exercise

Kegel exercise, also known as pelvic-floor exercise, involves repeatedly contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor, now sometimes colloquially referred to as the “Kegel muscles”. The exercise can be performed multiple times each day, for several minutes at a time, but takes one to three months to begin to have an effect.[1]

Kegel exercises aim to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles.[2] These muscles have many functions within the human body. In women, they are responsible for: holding up the bladder, preventing urinary stress incontinence (especially after childbirth), vaginal and uterine prolapse.[3][4] In men, these muscles are responsible for: urinary continence, fecal continence, and ejaculation.[5][4] Several tools exist to help with these exercises, although various studies debate the relative effectiveness

HEALTH

#### Health – Wikipedia

Level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being

Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in which disease and infirmity are absent.[1]

## History

The meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body’s ability to function; health was seen as a state of normal function that could be disrupted from time to time by disease. An example of such a definition of health is: “a state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biological, psychological, and social stress”.[2] Then in 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of “physical, mental, and social well-being, and not

EXERCISE

#### Exercise – Wikipedia

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.[1]

It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, preventing aging, developing muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improving health[2] and also for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and enhance well-being.[3]

In terms of health benefits, the amount of recommended exercise depends upon the goal, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even doing a small amount of exercise is healthier than doing none.[4]

## Classification

An aerobics exercise instructor motivates her class to keep up the pace in United States.

Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:[5]

• Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large
DENTAL

#### Dentist – Wikipedia

Healthcare occupations caring for the mouth and teeth

A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist’s supporting team aids in providing oral health services. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and sometimes dental therapists.

## History

### Middle Ages

In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers. They have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: guild of barbers and lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers. Guild barbers were trained to do complex surgeries. The second group, the lay barbers, were qualified to perform regular hygienic services such as shaving and tooth extraction as well as basic