To diagnose spinal stenosis, your doctor may ask you about signs and symptoms, discuss your medical history, and conduct a physical examination. He or she may order several imaging tests to help pinpoint the cause of your signs and symptoms.
These tests may include:
- X-rays. An X-ray of your back can reveal bony changes, such as bone spurs that may be narrowing the space within the spinal canal. Each X-ray involves a small exposure to radiation.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses a powerful magnet and radio waves to produce cross-sectional images of your spine. The test can detect damage to your disks and ligaments, as well as the presence of tumors. Most important, it can show where the nerves in the spinal cord are being pressured.
- CT or CT myelogram. If you can’t have an MRI, your doctor may recommend computerized tomography (CT), a
What Is Pleurisy?
Pleurisy is a type of chest pain. It affects a part of your body called the pleura.
The pleura is a thin layer of tissue that wraps your lungs. They fit snugly within your chest, which is lined with another thin layer of pleura.
These layers keep your bare lungs from rubbing against the wall of your chest cavity every time you breathe in. There’s a bit of fluid within the narrow space between the two layers of pleura to keep everything moving smoothly.
When you’re healthy, you never notice your pleura at work. But if your pleura has a problem, you’ll feel it.
When the pleurae are swollen and inflamed, they rub against each other in a very painful way each time your lungs expand. When you inhale deeply, cough, sneeze, or laugh, you’ll probably feel a sharp, stabbing pain in the area that’s affected.
A stem cell transplant has three stages: induction, conditioning, and transplantation. First, the individual’s white blood cell count is brought under control by chemotherapy. Then a single dose of chemotherapy may be given followed by a conditioning regimen of high dose chemotherapy. This will destroy the individual’s bone marrow and any residual leukemia cells that may be present. Then the donor cells will be infused.
Until the donor marrow cells start producing new blood, the individual is left with virtually no blood cells — white cells, red cells, or platelets. This makes death by infection or bleeding a strong possibility. Once the donor stem cells grow sufficiently into the marrow, usually in two to six weeks, long-term remission becomes a strong possibility. In addition to chemotherapy, the person will receive medication to prevent and treat graft versus host disease. With this disease, donor cells attack the person’s normal
If you recently had a cold that turned into a nagging cough, you might have acute bronchitis. (In medical terms, “acute” means conditions that come on quickly and last a short time).
Bronchitis happens when your bronchial tubes, which carry oxygen from your windpipe to your lungs, become inflamed. The lining of the tubes makes mucus, which makes your cough worse.
The condition can also cause wheezing and make it hard to catch your breath.
To know for sure whether your recent illness is acute bronchitis and not an allergy or other problem, you should see your doctor.
While many cases go away on their own, others require treatment. Learn more about how doctors diagnose and treat bronchitis:
How Do I Know Whether it’s Acute or Chronic?
First, it’s important to figure out a time line.
If you have a cough and breathing problems that have lasted for months or
In a pelvic exam, your physician inserts two gloved fingers inside your vagina. While simultaneously pressing down on your abdomen, he or she can examine your uterus, ovaries and other organs.
Uterine fibroids are frequently found incidentally during a routine pelvic exam. Your doctor may feel irregularities in the shape of your uterus, suggesting the presence of fibroids.
If you have symptoms of uterine fibroids, your doctor may order these tests:
Ultrasound. If confirmation is needed, your doctor may order an ultrasound. It uses sound waves to get a picture of your uterus to confirm the diagnosis and to map and measure fibroids.
A doctor or technician moves the ultrasound device (transducer) over your abdomen (transabdominal) or places it inside your vagina (transvaginal) to get images
Diagnosing essential tremor involves reviewing your medical history, family history and symptoms and conducting a physical examination.
There are no medical tests to diagnose essential tremor. Diagnosing it is often a matter of ruling out other conditions that could be causing your symptoms. To do this, your doctor may suggest the following tests:
In a neurological examination, your doctor tests your nervous system functioning, including checking your:
- Tendon reflexes
- Muscle strength and tone
- Ability to feel certain sensations
- Posture and coordination
Your blood and urine may be tested for several factors, including:
- Thyroid disease
- Metabolic problems
- Drug side effects
- Levels of chemicals that may cause tremor
Essential tremor test
Essential tremor test
One test used to evaluate essential tremor involves having you
Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is a type of bacteria. These germs can enter your body and live in your digestive tract. After many years, they can cause sores, called ulcers, in the lining of your stomach or the upper part of your small intestine. For some people, an infection can lead to stomach cancer.
Infection with H. pylori is common. About two-thirds of the world’s population has it in their bodies. For most people, it doesn’t cause ulcers or any other symptoms. If you do have problems, there are medicines that can kill the germs and help sores heal.
As more of the world gets access to clean water and sanitation, fewer people than before are getting the bacteria. With good health habits, you can protect yourself and your children from H. pylori.
How H. pylori Makes You Sick
For decades, doctors thought people got ulcers
What Is Astigmatism?
Astigmatism is a condition in which your eye isn’t completely round.
Ideally, an eyeball is shaped like a perfectly round ball. Light comes into it and bends evenly, which gives you a clear view. But if your eye is shaped more like a football, light gets bent more in one direction than another. That means only part of an object is in focus. Things at a distance may look blurry and wavy.
It’s common to have astigmatism along with nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia). These three conditions are called refractive errors because they involve how your eyes bend (refract) light. Learn more: Does astigmatism get worse with age?
Astigmatism is fairly easy for an eye doctor to fix with glasses, contacts, or surgery.
Symptoms of astigmatism may include:
Most people are born with it, but experts don’t know why. You can
The doctor will initially take a detailed medical history and may ask questions about recent growth. During the physical exam, your doctor may have your child stand and then bend forward from the waist, with arms hanging loosely, to see if one side of the rib cage is more prominent than the other.
Your doctor may also perform a neurological exam to check for:
- Muscle weakness
- Abnormal reflexes
Plain X-rays can confirm the diagnosis of scoliosis and reveal the severity of the spinal curvature. If a doctor suspects that an underlying condition — such as a tumor — is causing the scoliosis, he or she may recommend additional imaging tests, such as an MRI.
Most children with scoliosis have mild curves and probably won’t need treatment with a brace or surgery. Children who have mild scoliosis may need regular checkups to see if there have
What Is a Brain Aneurysm?
A brain aneurysm, also known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is a weak spot in the wall of a blood vessel inside the brain. Think of a weak spot in a balloon and how it feels stretched out and thin. A brain aneurysm is like that.
That area of the blood vessel gets worn out from constant flow of blood and bulges out, almost like a bubble. It can grow to the size of a small berry. There are different types:
Saccular aneurysms are the most common type of brain aneurysm. They bulge out in a dome shape from the main artery. They’re connected to that artery by a narrow “neck.”
Fusiform aneurysms aren’t as common as saccular aneurysms. They don’t pouch out in a dome shape. Instead, they make a widened spot in the blood vessel.
Although brain aneurysms sound alarming, most don’t cause