Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is a type of bacteria. These germs can enter your body and live in your digestive tract. After many years, they can cause sores, called ulcers, in the lining of your stomach or the upper part of your small intestine. For some people, an infection can lead to stomach cancer.
Infection with H. pylori is common. About two-thirds of the world’s population has it in their bodies. For most people, it doesn’t cause ulcers or any other symptoms. If you do have problems, there are medicines that can kill the germs and help sores heal.
As more of the world gets access to clean water and sanitation, fewer people than before are getting the bacteria. With good health habits, you can protect yourself and your children from H. pylori.
How H. pylori Makes You Sick
For decades, doctors thought people got ulcers
What Is Astigmatism?
Astigmatism is a condition in which your eye isn’t completely round.
Ideally, an eyeball is shaped like a perfectly round ball. Light comes into it and bends evenly, which gives you a clear view. But if your eye is shaped more like a football, light gets bent more in one direction than another. That means only part of an object is in focus. Things at a distance may look blurry and wavy.
It’s common to have astigmatism along with nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia). These three conditions are called refractive errors because they involve how your eyes bend (refract) light. Learn more: Does astigmatism get worse with age?
Astigmatism is fairly easy for an eye doctor to fix with glasses, contacts, or surgery.
Symptoms of astigmatism may include:
Most people are born with it, but experts don’t know why. You can
The doctor will initially take a detailed medical history and may ask questions about recent growth. During the physical exam, your doctor may have your child stand and then bend forward from the waist, with arms hanging loosely, to see if one side of the rib cage is more prominent than the other.
Your doctor may also perform a neurological exam to check for:
- Muscle weakness
- Abnormal reflexes
Plain X-rays can confirm the diagnosis of scoliosis and reveal the severity of the spinal curvature. If a doctor suspects that an underlying condition — such as a tumor — is causing the scoliosis, he or she may recommend additional imaging tests, such as an MRI.
Most children with scoliosis have mild curves and probably won’t need treatment with a brace or surgery. Children who have mild scoliosis may need regular checkups to see if there have
What Is a Brain Aneurysm?
A brain aneurysm, also known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is a weak spot in the wall of a blood vessel inside the brain. Think of a weak spot in a balloon and how it feels stretched out and thin. A brain aneurysm is like that.
That area of the blood vessel gets worn out from constant flow of blood and bulges out, almost like a bubble. It can grow to the size of a small berry. There are different types:
Saccular aneurysms are the most common type of brain aneurysm. They bulge out in a dome shape from the main artery. They’re connected to that artery by a narrow “neck.”
Fusiform aneurysms aren’t as common as saccular aneurysms. They don’t pouch out in a dome shape. Instead, they make a widened spot in the blood vessel.
Although brain aneurysms sound alarming, most don’t cause
How Do I Know if I Have Anemia?
To diagnose anemia, your doctor will likely ask you about your medical history, perform a physical exam, and order blood tests.
You can help by providing detailed answers about your symptoms, family medical history, diet, medications you take, alcohol intake, and ethnic background. Your doctor will look for symptoms of anemia and other physical clues that might point to a cause.
There are basically three different causes of anemia: blood loss, decreased or faulty red blood cell production, or destruction of red blood cells.
Blood tests will not only confirm the diagnosis of anemia, but also help point to the underlying condition. Tests might include:
- Complete blood count (CBC), which determines the number, size, volume, and hemoglobin content of red blood cells
- Blood iron level and your serum ferritin level, the best indicators of your body’s total iron stores
- Levels of vitamin
National Institutes of Health.
Glaucoma Research Foundation: “Other Types of Glaucoma,” “Questions & Answers: Normal-Tension Glaucoma,” “Symptoms of Angle-Closure Glaucoma,” “Medication Guide,” “What Can I Do To Prevent Glaucoma?” “What You Can Do to Manage Your Glaucoma, “Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble,” “Summertime Tips,” “Learn About Glaucoma,” “How Often Should I Have My Eyes Tested?” “Five Common Glaucoma Tests,” “Glaucoma Medications and Their Side Effects,” “Should You Be Smoking Marijuana to Treat Your Glaucoma?”
American Academy of Ophthalmology: “What Are the Symptoms of Glaucoma?” “Who Is at Risk for Glaucoma?” “What Is Ocular Hypertension?” “Glaucoma Treatment,” “Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?” “Early Detection Key to Slowing Progression of Glaucoma.”
Mayo Clinic: “Glaucoma.”
CDC: “Don’t Let Glaucoma Steal Your Sight!”
American Glaucoma Society.
Weinreb, R. Lancet, 2004.
Curcio, C. Journal of Comparative Neurology, Oct. 1, 1990.
American Academy of Ophthalmology.
U.S. Preventive Services Task force: “Screening for
What Is Angina?
Angina is chest pain that happens because there isn’t enough blood going to part of your heart. It can feel like a heart attack, with pressure or squeezing in your chest. It’s sometimes called angina pectoris or ischemic chest pain.
It’s a symptom of heart disease, and it happens when something blocks your arteries or there’s not enough blood flow in the arteries that bring oxygen-rich blood to your heart.
Angina usually goes away quickly. Still, it can be a sign of a life-threatening heart problem. It’s important to find out what’s going on and what you can do to avoid a heart attack.
Usually, medicine and lifestyle changes can control angina. If it’s more severe, you may need surgery, too. Or you may need what’s called a stent, a tiny tube that props open arteries.
There are different types of angina:
Stable angina. This is the
During a flexible sigmoidoscopy exam, the doctor inserts a sigmoidoscope into your rectum to check for abnormalities in your lower colon.
During a colonoscopy, the doctor inserts a colonoscope into your rectum to check for abnormalities in your entire colon.
Tests and procedures used to diagnose proctitis include:
- Blood tests. These can detect blood loss or infections.
- Stool test. You may be asked to collect a stool sample for testing. A stool test may help determine if your proctitis is caused by a bacterial infection.
- Scope exam of the last portion of your colon. During this test (flexible sigmoidoscopy), your doctor uses a slender, flexible, lighted tube to examine the
Things will move quickly once you get to the hospital, as your emergency team tries to determine what type of stroke you’re having. That means you’ll have a CT scan or other imaging test soon after arrival. Doctors also need to rule out other possible causes of your symptoms, such as a brain tumor or a drug reaction.
Some of the tests you may have include:
Stroke consultation at Mayo Clinic
CT scan of brain tissue damaged by stroke
CT scan of brain tissue damaged by stroke
CT scan showing brain tissue damaged by stroke
A cerebral angiogram showing a carotid aneurysm associated
Co-occurring mental health conditions and substance use disorders affect nearly 8.9 million Americans each year. Of those only 7.4% receive appropriate treatment, with the vast majority bounced among treatment systems with different and opposing treatment structures.
Few drug treatment centers specialize in treating complex co-occurring disorders. Nationally, research continues to reveal that people with co-occurring disorders need a specialized form of treatment, referred to as integrated services or dual diagnosis treatment.
Mental health treatment and addiction treatment have historically and continue to be separated systems of care. While many research studies have been performed on mental health and addictions separately, it has only been within recent years that studies have emerged on people who struggle with both conditions in tandem. This emerging research identifies that traditional separated systems of care not only alienate the consumer from treatment, but they also result in much poorer outcomes that those experienced by people